Texts, Textual Acts and the History of Science
The documents examined come from scholarly sources from different parts of the world, such as China, Europe, India, Mesopotamia and are written in a variety of European languages as well as Chinese, Cuneiform and Sanskrit. This approach proves fruitful in both history of science and Text Act Theory.
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About The Author. Her interest is in the history of mathematics in ancient China within the context of a world history. She also researches modern European mathematics. In both case Select Parent Grandparent Teacher Kid at heart.
Age of the child I gave this to:. Hours of Play:. Tell Us Where You Are:. Preview Your Review. Thank you. Your review has been submitted and will appear here shortly. Extra Content. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Speech acts and textual acts. Speech act theory and instructional texts; Jacques Virbel. The issue of textual genres in the medical literature produced in late imperial China; Florence Bretelle-Establet. Zoological nomenclature and speech act theory; Yves Cambefort. Ordering operations in square root extractions. Analyzing some early medieval Sanskrit mathematical texts with the help of speech act theory; Agathe Keller.
Enumerations as textual acts. The description of enumerations; Jacques Virbel.
Textual criticism - Wikipedia
Specifically, they cited the ability students have to purchase books from online distribution channels outside the United States at lower prices, which may result in a loss of sales for U. Additionally, the availability of lower-priced textbooks through these channels has heightened distrust and frustration among students regarding textbook prices, and college stores find it difficult to explain why their textbook prices are higher, according to the National Association of College Stores.
Retailers and publishers have also been concerned that some U. While the Supreme Court decision Quality King v. L'anza protects the reimportation of copyrighted materials under the first-sale doctrine , textbook publishers have still attempted to prevent the U. The authors often getting half-royalties instead of full-royalties, minus the charges for returned books from bookstores. According to the National Association of College Stores, the entire cost of the book is justified by expenses, with typically The store and publisher amounts are slightly higher for Canada.
Following closely behind annual increases in tuition and fees at postsecondary institutions, college textbook and supply prices have risen at twice the rate of annual inflation over the last two decades. Rising at an average of 6 percent each year since academic year , compared with overall average price increases of 3 percent per year, college textbook and supply prices trailed tuition and fee increases, which averaged 7 percent per year.
Since December , textbook and supply prices have nearly tripled, increasing by percent, while tuition and fees increased by percent and overall prices grew by 72 percent. While increases in textbook and supply prices have followed increases in tuition and fees, the cost of textbooks and supplies for degree-seeking students as a percentage of tuition and fees varies by the type of institution attended.
The wholesale prices charged by textbook publishers have jumped 62 percent since , while prices charged for all finished goods increased only 14 percent.
Similarly, the prices charged by publishers for general books increased just 19 percent during the same time period. In most U. K public schools, a local school board votes on which textbooks to purchase from a selection of books that have been approved by the state Department of Education. Teachers receive the books to give to the students for each subject. Teachers are usually not required to use textbooks, however, and many prefer to use other materials instead. Textbook publishing in the U. In recent years, high school textbooks of United States history have come under increasing criticism.
Inaccurately retelling history, through textbooks or other literature, has been practiced in many societies, from ancient Rome to the Soviet Union USSR and the People's Republic of China.
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The content of history textbooks is often determined by the political forces of state adoption boards and ideological pressure groups. Science textbooks have been the source of ongoing debates and have come under scrutiny from several organizations. The presentation or inclusion of controversial scientific material has been debated in several court cases. Poorly designed textbooks have been cited as contributing to declining grades in mathematics and science in the United States and organizations such as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences AAAS have criticized the layout, presentation, and amount of material given in textbooks.
Discussions of textbooks have been included on creation and evolution in the public education debate. The Smith v. Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County case brought forward a debate about scientific fact being presented in textbooks. In his book, Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman described his experiences as a member of a committee that evaluated science textbooks. Feynman himself experienced attempts at bribery.
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Largely in the US, but increasingly in other nations, K Mathematics textbooks have reflected the controversies of new math and reform mathematics which have sought to replace traditional mathematics in what have been called the math wars. Traditional texts, still favored in Asia and other areas, merely taught the same time-tested mathematics that most adults have learned. By contrast "progressive" approaches seek to address problems in social inequity [ citation needed ] with approaches that often incorporate principles of constructivism and discovery.
Texts such as TERC and CMP discourage or omit standard mathematics methods and concepts such as long division and lowest common denominators. For example, an index entry to multiply fractions would lead to "devise your own method to multiply fractions which work on these examples", and the formula for the area of a circle would be an exercise for a student to derive rather than including it in the student text. By the s, while some districts were still adopting the more novel methods, others had abandoned them as unworkable. In the U. Students are typically responsible for obtaining their own copies of the books used in their courses, although alternatives to owning textbooks, such as textbook rental services and library reserve copies of texts, are available in some instances.
In some European countries, such as Sweden or Spain, students attending institutions of higher education pay for textbooks themselves, although higher education is free of charge otherwise. With higher education costs on the rise, many students are becoming sensitive to every aspect of college pricing, including textbooks, which in many cases amount to one tenth of tuition costs. The Government Accountability Office report on college textbooks said that since the s, textbook and supply prices have risen twice the rate of inflation in the past two decades [ citation needed ].
While many groups have assigned blame to publishers, bookstores or faculty, the ACSFA also found that assigning blame to any one party—faculty, colleges, bookstores or publishers—for current textbook costs is unproductive and without merit. The report called on all parties within the industry to work together to find productive solutions, which included a movement toward open textbooks and other lower-cost digital solutions. Textbook prices are considerably higher in law school. In cases of history, science, current events, and political textbooks, "the writer might be biased towards one way or another.
Topics such as actions of a country, presidential actions, and scientific theories are common potential biases".
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title link True Stuff: Socrates vs. City at the head of the class: Consolidation, talent pool have made Columbus a hotbed for educational publishers. August 5, Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved on The Harvard Crimson.